Some of the items, including tooth pendants and bone points, turned out to be the earliest such artifacts from northern Eurasia, produced between 43,000 and 49,000 years ago.It was not possible to determine which hominin made the items, however.The ages of many of the finds are beyond the limits of radiocarbon dating (which only goes back about 50,000 years).While other methods of dating have longer ranges, they generally date the sediments in which items are found, not the items themselves.The a DNA studies from cave’s hominins, both Denisovan and Neanderthal, helped confirm that both populations have, at various times, interbred with and each other.In 2018, additional partial remains from the cave turned out to be from the first known Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid individual.
After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.
The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage.
For the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline of human evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.
Nestled in the foothills of southern Siberia’s Altai Mountains, Denisova Cave has yielded numerous artifacts, as well as fossils of many animals and at least two hominins: Neanderthals and Denisovans.
The cave is the only place in the world known to have remains of the Denisovans, who, like Neanderthals, were our close evolutionary cousins.
This is a problem at Denisova because sediment layers have been disturbed in several areas thanks to activities such as animals trampling and digging and generally making a mess of things.