Trade and investment flows are controlled by the government and negatively affected by multilateral economic sanctions.The regime may be attempting to start modest economic opening by encouraging limited foreign direct investment, but the dominant influence of the military establishment makes any meaningful near-term change unlikely.All North Korean writers, artists, dancers, and musicians are assigned to government institutions such as the National Theatre for the Arts and the State Symphony Orchestra in P’yŏngyang and provincial organizations of music, ballet, and drama.
As part of the effort to fortify the entire country, more military airfields were constructed and large underground aircraft hangars were built.
Korean Workers’ Party (KWP), created from communist parties founded earlier.
Until his death in 1994, Kim ruled the country with an iron hand by promoting a personality cult centred on himself as the “Great Leader” of the Korean people.
In the aftermath of the Korean War, Kim purged the so-called “domestic faction”—an indigenous communist group that had remained in Korea during the colonial period—amid much scapegoating for the disastrous war.
After 1956, as the Sino-Soviet conflict intensified, Kim shifted his positions vis-à-vis Moscow and Beijing no fewer than three times: from pro-Soviet to neutral, to pro-Chinese, and finally to independent.
The impoverished population is heavily dependent on food rations and government housing subsidies.